Carbonara is arguably the most famous Roman and Italian pasta dish.
It’s a must for all tourists visiting the Eternal City, Rome.
It is hugely popular throughout Italy.
Students far from home love preparing it because its fast and simple to make, quite filling, inexpensive. It is also delicious.
Great chefs have also tried to reinterprete tradition, with their takes on the classic dish, spinning off many variations.
The key ingredients for the dressing are: Cheecklard, Black Pepper, Egg Yolk, Pecorino Cheese. The most popular pasta formats for it are: Rigatoni, Bucatini, Spaghetti.
It was invented just after World War II when the country was being reconstructed, dragging itself out of abject poverty, so it was a way of celebrating a new found abundance, leaving famine and hardships behind. The ultimate dream was to achieve a ‘Dolcevita’ lifestyle.

Carbonara: Procedure

This is the Procedure.

1) Prepare a pot of boiling water for the pasta. Add salt to it, when it starts boiling. Cook the pasta. Strain it ‘al dente’, not overcooked.
In the meantime, you will have…
2) Cut the Cheecklard into strips about as thick as a potato chip. Heat in a pan, to melt the fat, making it crispy on the outside, tender inside. Take a tablespoon of melted fat and…
3) Add it to egg yolk, beating it in using a fork, together with black pepper and grated Pecorino Romano (D.o.p.) cheese. If lumpy, add some water from the pasta pot (which contains starch from the pasta). You will obtain a silky smooth yellow cream.
4) Add a little water from the pasta pot to the pan cointaing the Cheecklard.
5) Strain the pasta and transfer it to the pan, compleating cooking (last 1-2 minutes). Switch off heat, add in the cream. The 60 Degree Celsius hot pasta will ‘pasteurise’ the egg.
6) Serve hot with a fresh sprinkling of cheese.

Recipe for 2 people, generous portions.

  • 200 grams Pasta (7oz.).
  • 160 grams Cheecklard (5.5 oz.).
  • 60 grams Pecorino Romano Cheese (2.5 oz.).
  • Black Pepper to taste.

Watch the Video or follow the Recipe and Procedure then try to recreate your own dining experience at home.

I would like to give credit to the YouTube channel Cucinandomelagodo for inspiring my own version in English.

Happy Carbonara Day Everyone.

Gricia is a simple Roman Cuisine pasta dish. It includes three key ingredients: Cheecklard, Pecorino Cheese and Black Pepper.
The traditional pasta used are Rigatoni, a large format pasta cylinder with lines that help any sauce stick to them.
Many people see Gricia as just a step up from Cacio e Pepe (cheese and pepper) or even as an inferior Carbonara, namely a similar dish without eggs. However Gricia has its own identity and distinctive taste.
We use large quantities of Cheecklard because it is the only source of fat, with no addition of olive oil.
Not recommended for a diet.
This is a dish that embodies the rural culture of Rome. The very first Romans were herdsmen, shepherds, farmers and warriors. Indeed the words Salary and Pecunia (money) derive from Salt and Sheep (pecora in Italian).
Eat Gricia and you’ll feel like a Roman Soldier coming back home after fighting a battle for Julius Cesar.

Recipe. For 2 people. Latge portions.

  • 250 grams (8.5oz) Cheecklard
  • 280 grams (9.5oz) Rigatoni
  • 80 grams Pecorino Romano (possibly d.o.p.) cheese.
  • Black Pepper (better if freshly ground)

I would like to give credit to the YouTube channel Cucinandomelagodo that inspired my own video and recipe translation in English. Enjoy. For other recipes click here.

Amatriciana is a classic pasta dish of Roman Cuisine, originating, possibly, from Amatrice, a small town in central Italian (which was severely hit by an earthquake a few years ago).
The key ingredient is cheecklard, a fattier version of pancetta, bacon, which could (but should not) be used alternatively.
Here is the recipe I used.

Amatriciana: ingredients

For 4 to 5 people, accordo to appetite.

  • 500g pasta (use the whole packet, it is usually 500gr).
  • 25g (8 or 9oz) of cheeklard
  • A spoonful of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
  • A dash of dry white wine
  • 400g (15oz) of tomato sauce or pelati
  • 1 red hot pepper (or less).
  • 100g (3.5oz) of freshly grated Pecorino Romano
  • Salt and Black pepper

As you can see two of these ingredients are also in Cacio e Pepe. This is the beauty of Roman Cuisine: take away or add a couple of things and you end up with another masterpiece pasta dish.

To learn about the procedure, watch my video recipe by clicking here! Enjoy. If you liked this recipe, share it on your social networks and don’t forget to have a look at the section dedicated to the most famous recipes.

Cacio e Pepe (Cheese and Pepper) is a classic pasta dish of Roman Cuisine. You can use Bucatini or Rigatoni pasta. The beauty of the recipe is in its simplicity, there are just the 2 ingredients: Pecorino Romano D.O.P. and freshly ground black pepper.

I would recommend a quality Pecorino that won’t become lumpy once in the pan. However, when you blend in the cheese it is important to lower the heat… Here is the recipe of my Cacio e Pepe.

Cacio e Pepe: ingredients

Remember 1 ounce = 28 grams
For 2 people (generous portions)

  • 250 grams (about 8oz) Bucatini (alternatively Spaghettoni or Rigatoni)
  • 90 grams Pecorino (3oz)
  • Black Pepper (according to personal taste)

To learn about the procedure, watch my video recipe by clicking here! Enjoy.

I would like to thank the YouTube channel Cucinandomelagodo, which was the inspiration for this video in English. If you liked this recipe, share it on your social networks and don’t forget to have a look at the section dedicated to the most famous recipes.



Interview and considerations

I met Salvatore Lenzi this summer, by chance. I was on my way to a trekking outing around Lake Laceno. I decided to stop in Bagnoli, because I wanted to visit the town, sample some of the famous Pecorino Bagnolese Dop Cheese, get some food for the outing. I was attracted by the window of this boutique-like shop on the main square. The place is not large, yet it has an elegant look about it, showcasing a variety of products, ranging from Truffles to pasta, beer, mushrooms, cheeses, all paired with or flavoured by Truffles. Mr. Lanzi was happy to give me all the info I wanted, enthusiastic about me shooting a video in his venue, even upon a first acquaintance. His simple, straightforward approach sparked a respectful friendship, and this interview is the result.

Question: Mr. Lenzi, how did your passion for Truffles come about?

Answer: I became truly passionate about Truffles thirty years ago, when I was a university student in Naples. I began supplying the best food shops and restaurants with the objective of paying for my studies and earning a little money.

Q.: What are the peculiar properties of the Truffle of Bagnoli Irpino?

A.: The Black Truffle of Bagnoli features a strong smell that makes the Scorzone pale in comparison (its scent is almost banal), while the prestigious Bianco d’Alba is more delicate and exquisite.

Q.: Could you describe the smell and aroma (the scent perceived from the back of the nasal cavity, after chewing a food) of your truffles?

A.: The smell is quite subjective. It impacts some people almost like the smell of cooking-gas, for others it resembles bitumen used in tarmac, but, matter of fact, after a while you end up falling in love with it, because you realise it’s a unique product of nature.

Q.: The Truffle of Bagnoli was unknown to most people, was it easy to put it on the map and make it popular?

A.: The work to make it emerge was by no means easy, and there is still much to do. Personally, I have attended international fairs for years in order to present this jewel of nature and all the products deriving from it. I must say that it was belittled by my competitors for years, because they did not want it to be a success. Luckily they were proven wrong and a great number of people now appreciate our truffles.

Q.: What are the costs producers incur in, what is it that makes truffles so valuable and expensive?

A.: Truffles are costly because they are not easy to obtain, they have a very limited season and at the same time, their consumption is limited to certain periods of the year. That is why prices peak just before Christmas time. 

Q.: Are there any trufflières in Bagnoli, or do you rely on cercatori (finders) for your supplies?

A.: I possess a natural trufflière, but I mostly rely on expert cavatori (diggers) who go out on a daily basis to look for truffles across the mountains.

Q.: Truffles have become a symbol of distinction in the world of restaurants, on peer with Champagne and caviar. How did this association come about? Is it an idea linked to luxury or is it because of their charisma and uniqueness?

A.: Truffles are, together with saffron, the most expensive food human beings can ingest. This is due to their rarity, but also to territorial marketing, status, trendiness, belonging to special categories… when you say you ate white truffle yesterday, or you went to a restaurant where the menu is totally based on truffles, that instantly makes you feel special… don’t you think so? It is obviously not there for everyone, but many people do appreciate it.

Q.: Is there any collaboration or pairing you would care to mention? This summer, for instance, I noticed many French Fromageries (cheese shops) sold Canestrato di Moliterno (an Italian Igp cheese) with truffles…

A.: We have had many collaborations over the years, just to mention France, the latest one was with my friend and renowned chef Norbert. Another collaboration between Regilait products and Tenzi Tartufi. We presented some recipes together for tastings, among which an excellent Truffle Omelette.

Q.: What is you favourite way, or recipe, to eat Truffles?

A.: Truffles should be eaten in the most simple ways. Grated or sliced onto pasta dishes in bianco (with no tomato sauce), or even better in flakes on fried eggs (typical in the Abruzzi Region).

Q.: What is the product that best represents Lenzi Tartufi, the one you are most proud of?

A.: The best-selling product across the world is the Salsa Tartufata (Truffled Sauce) of Bagnoli. It is appreciated by many clients and used in a variety of different ways… on pasta dishes, bruschetta, pizza, side dishes, etc.

While thanking Mr. Lenzi for the interview and for the interesting insights he gave us, I would like to add a personal considerationon Truffles in general.

Truffles thrive in woods and natural environments untouched by the chemicals used in intensive agriculture and pollution. These are, coincidentally, places of great natural beauty, landscapes that should be preserved for future generations (as proven by a vast body of UNESCO Recommendations). The economy of Truffles is Sustainable and it therefore follows that it plays an important role in the much-needed Conservation of Nature. This is something that the whole food community should encourage and highlight.

So enjoy your Truffles and show your love for nature, everyone!

Truffle Facts, Findings, the King, the Rebel

Most people have heard about Truffles and know they are some kind of very expensive mushroom with a distinctive taste and smell. However not everyone has tasted them, especially freshly sliced truffles, as opposed to a sauce with truffle scented oil and some small percentage of the real thing. So in this article I will try to address many unanswered questions about what makes them so special and sought after.

Truffle Facts

Truffles have a very ancient history, as they were known to the ancient Egyptians as well as the Sumerians. The first culinary endeavours featuring them started in France in the late 1700s at the court of Maréchal De Contades (cuisiniers Jean Pierre Clause and Nicolas Francois Doyen), where truffles were blended into the famous Paté de Fois Gras. They then spread through French and Italian cuisine as quickly as wildfire.

There are about 60 varieties of truffles, of which 25 grow in Italy, the greatest producer in the world. Of these, 9 or 10 are edible (one species comes in two varieties, hence the double count). Italian soil has proven to be the most bountiful, not just for geological characteristics, but also for the appreciation of truffles in Italy and, most importantly, the expertise of the cercatori (the truffle finders), who can be compared to veritable gold-diggers.

How to find Truffles

The cercatori set off to find truffles in woods, trekking cross-country in quite a secretive manner, as they are extremely jealous of the places where they know the truffles are waiting to be unearthed. Not many mushroom finders will let you know where they favourite places for porcini are, so there is next-to-no chance of someone telling you about truffles.

To find them you will need infinite patience, outdoor gear, as they are most often found in Autumn and Winter, a vanghetto (specifically designed trowel, foldable, two-piece or full size) and a loyal companion, a dog. You can try to train a dog yourself, by throwing a plastic bottle containing a piece of truffle, and rewarding the dog when it brings it back, then moving on to burying it underground. Needless to say, it’s a painstaking process. Or else, you can buy a big pup, half trained, or even a fully trained adult. The best breed, they say, is the Lagotto Romagnolo, a small playful, positively cute, kind of poodle, who doesn’t mind wet weather.

If you don’t know the right places though, it will be like looking for a pin in a haystack. Surprisingly, a friend of mine, Ennio, from Calabria, is capable of finding truffles without a dog or any specific tool. It’s all about knowing the woods like the back of your hand and being truly talented.

The King and its Subjects

The King of Truffles is undoubtedly the White Truffle of Alba (Magnatum Pico) although it could just as well be called di Monferrato or delle Langhe as it can be found in that geographical area (part of Piedmont, Italy). Its scent is strong, distinctive, yet elegant. It is extremely precious because of its rarity and ability to reach considerable sizes. Yes, size matters: Truffles are priced like diamonds, the bigger they are, the more precious they become!

White Truffle Auction

The next White Truffle Auction will take place in the Castle of Grinzane Cavour (a UNESCO WHL Site) on November 8th 2020, with all revenue going to charity. The most famous restaurants and chefs in the world will be jostling to outbid each other, and the Fair as well as the Auction, will attract thousands of foodies.

Black Truffle of Norcia

The Black Truffle of Norcia, or Prestigious Black Truffle (Tartufo Nero Pregiato /Tuber Malenosporum, Central Italy) gives further renown to a place, Norcia, already famous for its excellence in producing groceries. It is collected in Winter and can also be found in France, Spain and parts of Eastern Europe. It can also be cultivated in trufflières (truffle farms).

The Scorzone

The Scorzone (Tuber Aestivum) can be harvested in Summer. Its name (scorza means rind in Italian) suggests a thick Peridio (skin), its smell is not as intense as other varieties, and it only grows up to 5 cm in diameter (2 inches), at altitudes as high as 1000 metres. It can also be found in Europe, Morocco and Azerbaijan.

The Bianchetto

The Bianchetto (Albidum Pico) is another variation of the White Truffle, smaller in size, white on the outside, with a brownish hue on the inside – the inner part is called Gleba – and a less elegant smell, turning garlicky and oily when mature. It can be found in Winter, from January to March, and is especially appreciated in Tuscany, Emilia and Marche Regions.

Black Winter and Smooth Black Truffle

Other varieties are the Black Winter Truffle and the Smooth Black Truffle. These varieties, like all others, grow underground at a depth ranging from 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 inches) in a symbiotic relationship with the trees above them, acquiring nutrients from their roots.

The Rebel Truffle

The one variety that is strongly rooted in the South of Italy is the Tartufo di Bagnoli Irpino (Tuber Masentericum). Its average size ranges from 2 to 10 cm, it is collected from September to December, and is also known as the Tartufo Ordinario (Ordinary Truffle), yet the intensity of its smell sets it apart, like a brave boxer punching way above his weight class. This makes it special for the food industry, which has fallen in love with it, as it can be used to lend its scent to olive oil and all sorts of sauces. Rather than sticking together, many Italian producers from other Regions, have tried to ostracize this Truffle from Bagnoli, seeing it as an outsider. Yet, just like its peers, it can be found in places of great natural beauty (around Lake Laceno) and, as you will see from the interview with one of its ambassadors, Mr. Lenzi, it has a special talent for making people happy. The interview will appear in my next article.

For other similar articles click here. Share this article on your social e follow us on Facebook!

Antonio Peluso is a chef and entrepreneur who, much like a poker player, has gone ‘all in’ on baccalà , the salted or dried cod (stoccafisso) that Italians and especially Neapolitans, are crazy about. In a relatively short period of time he has managed to open four restaurants, write a recipe book and ultimately defy the crises of Corona-virus.

To celebrate these culinary accomplishments, I decided to translate some of His recipes into English, should any English-speaking chef or passionate cook want to try their hand at them.


Pumpkin Flowers stuffed with Baccalà and Ricotta

Ingredients for 4 people

  • 300g (10oz) of Baccalà, de-salted and with no bones
  • 12 large pumpkin flowers
  • 150g (5oz) of Ricotta
  • 20g (3/4oz) of grated Parmesan cheese
  • 1 egg
  • Extra-virgin Olive Oil (sufficient quantity)
  • Salt (add to taste)
  • Pepper (add to taste)


  • Rinse the flowers and dry them with paper
  • Gently fry the diced Baccalà in a pan with a little oil, add pepper and leave it to cool down.
  • In a bowl, mix the ricotta with salt, pepper, egg and shredded basil leaves. Then add the Baccalà together with the grated Parmesan.
  • Using a spoon, stuff the flowers with the mixture. Put the stuffed flowers in a baking tin, cover them with silver foil, put them in a pre-heated oven at 180c (350f) for about 12 minutes. Remove the foil and bake for another 3 minutes.
  • Leave to rest for a few minutes and serve still hot.

First Course

Cheese n Pepper Rigatoni with Baccalà

Ingredients for 4 people

  • 300g (10oz) of Baccalà, de-salted and with no bones
  • 320g (11oz) or pasta, rigatoni format
  • 120g (4oz) of grated Pecorino Romano cheese
  • 40g (1.5oz) of Pecorino Romano in chips
  • 100g (3.5oz) of butter
  • Pepper in abundance
  • Extra-virgin Olive Oil (sufficient quantity)
  • Salt (add to taste)


  • To make the sauce, gently melt the butter and grated cheese together, adding a ladle of hot water, and pepper to taste.
  • Let the diced Baccalà simmer in a pan with Evo oil till golden.
  • Cook the rigatoni in abundant salted hot water.
  • Strain the rigatoni ‘al dente’ (not overcooked!!!) then put them in the pan with the Baccalà and sear them slowly adding the sauce.
  • Serve adding the Pecorino in chips.

Note: Chees and pepper rigatoni are an ancient Roman recipe, very simple, but difficult to get right.

Second Course

Fried Baccalà

Ingredients for 4 people

  • 4 large pieces of Baccalà, 300g (10oz) each, already de-salted and with no bones
  • Flour, type 00
  • For frying: abundant oil (sunflower oil is ok)
  • For garnishing: 1 fresh lemon


  • Heat the oil in a tall casserole
  • Dry the pieces of Baccalà with a cloth and coat them in flour. Immerse them in the oil and fry for about 8 minutes.
  • Lift the Baccalà out of the oil, let it rest for 5 minutes, then fry it for another 5 minutes.
  • Dry the oil in excess with a paper napkin and serve with a quarter piece of the lemon.

Savoury cheesecake

Baccalà Cheesecake

Ingredients for 4 people

For the base:

  • 100g (3.5oz) of Taralli biscuits made with Olive Oil (Taralli are traditional Neapolitan savoury biscuits, usually made with lard)
  • 70g (2.5oz) of butter

For the cheesy part:

  • 300g (10oz) of Baccalà, de-salted and with no bones
  • 100g (3.5oz) of sun-dried tomatoes
  • 150g (5.5oz) of Roman Ricotta
  • ½ litre (a little less than a pint) of milk
  • 1 leaf of laurel
  • 1 clove of garlic
  • Salt (add to taste)
  • Pepper (add to taste)
  • Extra-virgin Olive Oli (sufficient quantity)


  • Pour the milk in a casserole together with the laurel leaf and an unpeeled clothe of garlic.
  • Add in the Baccalà and heat for about 15 minutes, take it out, strain it and leave it to cool down.
  • In a bowl, gently mix the ricotta with the Baccalà, using a spoon, then garnish with salt and pepper.
  • Cut the dried tomatoes in strips.
  • For the base, reduce the biscuits to dust in a mixer, gently melt the butter, add it to the biscuits, still using the mixer to make it smooth.
  • Brush 4 cupcake moulds with oil and add a layer of tomatoes on the bottom.
  • Add the Ricotta and Baccalà mixture up to 1.5cm (1/2 inch) from the brim.
  • Add the final layer of Taralli and butter, press down, put in fridge to cool for 30 minutes, before taking the cheesecakes out of their moulds.

I hope you enjoyed this selection, there will be more to come. Should anyone succeed in making some of the dishes, I would love you to send us a picture.

Did you know?

In Italian ‘sguardo da pesce lesso’, the ‘boiled fish look’ is that stunned kind of look that we associate with Stallone’s face and look in some of his early movies. Would Rambo eat Baccalà? Who knows?!

For more articles like this click here.

Antonio Peluso : A Success Story

This is the story of the chef who has taken Baccalà, salted cod, for those who are not proficient in Italian, to the next level. He has opened three restaurants that serve only Baccalà, he has written a book about it, and he styles himself ‘chef scellato’ – a pun almost lost in translation between ‘stellato’ (Michelin star chef) and ‘scella’ (local term for ‘wing’ in reference to the shape of the fish once salted). Can you guess who it is?

Well, it is none other than Antonio Peluso, an entrepreneur who had the guts to change his life and reshape his whole professional activity around this one fish species.


Antonio came from a totally different background, having performed as a local DJ and being the owner of a refurbishing business. He had the chance to acquire a small restaurant in his hometown, Marcianise, in 2015, and he said to himself “well, why not?”

The next question that obviously came to mind was what food to give his customers. He thought about Baccalà and persuaded himself it would be easy to specialise in serving it. It turns out that he massively underestimated the effort and dedication it would take to process this unforgiving delicacy. Given that the most popular version of Baccalà is the salted one – as opposed to Stoccafisso, which is sun-dried – the procedure to rehydrate it, rinse the salt out, and finally achieve the texture and tenderness that makes it so special, is painstaking and requires real expertise. 

Antonio Peluso : his first Locanda del Baccalà

Never the one to back off from a challenge or an uphill path, Mr. Peluso persevered in his efforts. He opened his first restaurant and named it “La Locanda del Baccalà”. He was readily rewarded by a growing numbers of customers, including a few local celebrities. This made him realise that although his market of reference was not entirely ready, it was rapidly evolving.

So his next move was to take on the market directly, to storm it almost, yet not with commercials as one would expect, but at personal level. He took advantage of every food event or festival to load up a ’76 TrackLander vehicle and take his restaurant brand “Locanda del Baccalà” all around region Campania, exploiting the ever popular trend of street-food. His specialties were exquisite fillets of fried or grilled Baccalà, as well as Mantecato – the unsalted dried cod prepared according to a classic Venician recipe.

A Baccalà Boutique

When more and more people started asking him where to source the fish so they could cook it at home themselves, Antonio came up with the idea of opening a Baccalà Boutique opposite his restaurant in Marcianise. The venue offers the choicest Baccalà and Stoccafisso from the Faroe Islands in Iceland, besides a very large kitchen for holding cooking classes for all fish lovers.

The second, the third and the fourth ones

Driven by the typical volcanic energy of many Neapolitans, firmly persuaded that in life one must never stop, our chef decided to open two more venues. His second Locanda is in Salerno, in the style of a Bistrot. It is warmly welcoming, unpretentiously so, it affords a view of the waterfront and offers every conceivable variation on the theme of Baccalà. The Third one is in Cava de’ Tirreni.This venue takes on a different nuance, with a focus on street food that is perfect for attracting young people. Here they serve fried fish in the Cuoppo, the traditional brown paper cone, in the guise of batter-fried Baccalà, fried anchovies, fish-balls and other tasty combos. But the king did not stop: on 16 June 2020 he opened his fourth one in Vietri sul Mare. An open air restaurant overlooking one of the most beautiful squares on the Amalfi coast.

Mr Antonio Peluso is indeed a man of confidence, and he must have felt reassured if not positively boosted by his success. However, what led him to style himself the King of Baccalà was the popular saying that every man is king in his own abode. Self-ironic in his newly acquired title, our King felt prompted him to be generous with his subjects, the people who cherish the taste of this fish from the north, and decided to share all the recipes from his restaurant menu with them.

This new idea took the form of a recipe book called 50 Sfumature di Baccalà, or 50 Shades of Baccalà in English. In my next article I will select and translate my favourite recipes in English for You, our dearest readers.

Did you know?

In Neapolitan Dialect Cuoppo, the paper cone containing food, is also a derogatory term referred to very ugly people. So prick up your ears and make sure no one calls you a Cuoppo!

Baccalà, or salted Cod, is especially popular in Italy. Campania in the South, is the region where it is most appreciated, but it is also vastly popular in other regions, such as Veneto, and other places, with BaccalàallaVicentina being one of the most famous dishes.

The question that comes to mind, however, is why this northern fish should be so sought after in a Mediterranean country like Italy, a peninsula where fish has always been plentiful. The answer is quite simple and lies buried in the folds of our history.


Going back to the 16th century, you may recall how Europe was disrupted by religious wars. Martin Luther, Calvin and Henry VIII – the latter for more secular reasons – were the rising stars of Protestantism. The Catholic Church of Rome was losing its power, Rome itself had been sacked, and people were fed up with its corruption and loose morals. So some kind of response was sorely needed.

The Church therefore decided to reform itself, its doctrine, as well as the mores and customs of its followers. Besides condemning Philosophers and Scientists like Giordano Bruno and Galileo, for disputing its doctrine, the so-called Counter-reformation of the Church imposed a more strict conduct and no leniency, not even for gluttons.

Periods of lent had to be observed (especially between Carnival and Easter), as well as mild forms of fasting. It became customary to eat fish on a Friday, abstaining from meat, as a form of penitence.

However fresh fish was not always readily available, especially far from the coast and in Winter months, and of course people didn’t have refrigerators at the time. SoBaccalà and Stoccafisso (dried unsalted cod) from the northern seas found their way to Italy. They were affordable, if not cheap, and met every religious requirement.

In Region Campania the fish first appeared in markets near the Sanctuary of the Madonna dell’Arco in Sant’Anastasia, in the Vesuvius area. The Sanctuary was a shrine, a place of pilgrimage and exchange, where people traded ideas as well as goods. From there it spread all around Campania, reaching places like Avellino and Benevento, two major cities of the inland, close to the Apennine Mountains.

Baccalàwas immediately paired with pasta and the rich vegetable produce of an area made exceptionally fertile by volcanic soil. Water is also abundant in the region, so re-hydrating a food that was salted for conservation, was never an issue.

Having ticked all of the boxes this wonderful fish became a win-win option, and nowadays it has been rediscovered by proud housewives, cooks and chefs.There are scores of restaurants that feature Baccalàdishes, and many that specialise in serving it as their only food, yet in countless variations.

Baccalà, who is the King?

Having given you a general picture, in the next article we will tell you the story of the chef who has taken this fish, so popular over the last five centuries, to the next level. He has opened three restaurants that serve only Baccalà, he has written a book about it, and he styles himself ‘chef scellato’ – a pun almost lost in translation between ‘stellato’ (Michelin star chef) and ‘scella’ (local term for ‘wing’ in reference to the shape of the fish once salted). Can you guess who it is? If so, please leave a comment below!

Did you Know?

In Italian being called a Baccalà is no form of flattery, rather a mild insult that roughly translates into ‘fool’ or ‘gullible’, a dim-witted person who is not ready to grasp the smallopportunities that life may bestow on them. Seduction is lost on the ‘Baccalà’, even if he has the looks, the girl who gave him the eye will soon turn her attention to a more lively partner. Luckily as the English saying goes, ‘there are plenty of fish in the sea!’

Sean Altamura

Traditions evolve over time negotiating changes with the contemporary world. This is especially true for gastronomy, as chefs are open to experimentation and fusions with other cuisines. However here in Italy, where there is such a variety of regional cuisines and biodiversity, this often happens in-house, so to speak.

Festivities are always a good excuse to get together and enjoy large family feasts, and diets invariably start after Christmas. The most important meal being the Christmas Eve Dinner, with the children opening their presents immediately after, and some adults going to church for Midnight Mass.

How do you prepare for Christmas Eve Dinner and what are the traditional dishes served?

Needless to say, fish is especially popular, and Baccalà, salted Codfish, is considered a must. It can be served fried in batter, in umido – boiled or fried – dressed with tomato sauce, olives and capers, or inside insalata di rinforzo, a salad with cabbage, mayonnaise and Baccalà. But this is only the tip of the iceberg. Here is an example of a traditional family menu in a Neapolitan household.

The Neapolitan Family Menu


Olives, groceries, octopus salad, anchovies

First course

Spaghetti with Clams

Second course

Mullet, Baccalà, Capitone eel

Side dishes

Insalata di rinforzo, salad


Struffoli, Roccocò


A very tense house-wife would be cooking all this with little help from the husband, and dreading judgement from the mother in law. However, the couple would have a special moment together and actually enjoy doing all the shopping for it.

This would happen – and does indeed still happen – on the night of 23rd of December. Fishmongers open early in the morning and close as late as 2 a.m.! Yes you got it right! It’s crazy but it’s fun. People go shopping for fish late at night.

A late night out shopping for fish

When they get to the fishmonger’s they choose the fish expertly, have a chat and improvise an aperitif with raw shellfish varying from mussels to clams, taratufi – warty venus clams, small shrimps, oysters and white wine, which has now evolved into Prosecco. This is possible because most customers will have ordered their fish in advance, and not everyone turns up at late hours. The fish shop will have lemons ready for the shellfish, eager to offer customers a treat that has been around far longer than the recently introduced sushi-style crudités. The shops will be lit up with the big light bulbs from Lampare, the old fishing boats, decorated with fishing nets, and display some live fish in shallow bowls, or some very large ones like whole sword-fish. The most popular places in Naples are Mergellina, by the sea front towards Posillipo, the market Aret é mura, near the ancient city gates of Porta Nolana and Porta Capuana, and Pignasecca market in Montesanto.

How have traditions changed from the past?

Luciano, a fish monger from Fuorigrotta recalls “My mum used to make spaghetti with Lupini – a cheaper variety of clams – with tomato sauce, to consume less olive oil, because we didn’t have much money. Everybody used to eat Cefalo – mullet, which is a little frowned upon now – Baccalà and Capitone, whereas now we only sell 30kg of it over the Christmas period”. Leonardo, another fish monger from Rione Sanità explains “Nowadays the older family members have to have their piece of fried Baccalà and Capitone, the middle aged like Pezzogna di mare – sea bream – and the children get plaice and calamari”. So there is a slightly different menu for every age group, introduced by sfizi – fun starters like prawn cocktails and oysters, and an overall tendency to prefer fish with no bones, including lobster and squid, which are relatively easier to cook.

Taste it yourself

If you are not fortunate enough to be invited home by a traditional family, you can still taste Baccalà and other delicacies in a restaurant. Moreover, you won’t have to wait till Christmas, or engage in heavy duty cooking. These are the restaurants that have included salted and dried cod, Baccalà and Stocco, into the best recipes of Italian Cuisine, making it their choicest ingredient.

La Locanda del Baccalà

This restaurant boasts three branches, with premises in Marcianise, Salerno, and Cava Dei Tirreni. As the name suggests it specialises in dishes featuring Baccalà as the main ingredient.

Traditional Italian recipes have been reinvented, to host this tasty guest. An example? Spaghetti alla Carbonara with Baccalà instead of Pancetta or Guanciale – bacon and cheecklard respectively – as a more healthy alternative, rich in flavour. This has led to the creation of a recipe book, recently published, called ‘50 Sfumature di Baccalà’ or ’50 Shades of Baccalà’.

Each branch has its style, with a Baccalà Boutique in Marcianise, the Locanda or Tavern in Salerno, and the Street Food shop in Cava dei Tirreni.

Ristorante Bianco      

The Ristorante Bianco, or White Restaurant, specialises in Baccalà dishes, but also offers excellent fish food from the whole range of fresh catches from the Mediterranean and Atlantic. Rather than working on traditional dishes featuring Baccalà, they have worked on innovative pairings, such as Baccalà Tartare with Basil Pesto alla Genovese, or even Risotto with Baccalà and Pumpkin. The Restaurant can be found just outside Arzano, a town in the province of Naples.

Le Due Palme

Obviously named after palm trees the Restaurant also mirrors the surname of the owners, Palma. It specialises in sea-food in general. It is located in Agnano, not far from Pozzuoli, where there is an excellent fish market, regularly supplied by local fishing boats with some spectacular live catches. A signature dish is fried Baccalà in almond crust resting on a chickpea puree with a side dish of Peperone Crusco and Frarielli – local varieties of peppers and broccoli, respectively.

The Restaurant is also an authentic Neapolitan Pizzeria, which means it is ideal for kids who may not always appreciate fish. It is on the Astroni hill, near the WWF Astroni Nature Reserve, so if you get the timing right you could visit the reserve and have lunch at the restaurant.


All the restaurants mentioned can be considered mid-range in price, with variations according to your appetite and how lavish you get with the wine.

Side Story

Fishmongers used to hail their customers with local dialect expressions that are now almost lost. ‘E palill aret é carrett’ – ‘the wooden pegs securing the load on carts’ was a reference to how large and tasty the anchovies were.

Not wholeheartedly honest, fishmongers used to serve fish wrapped in thick paper. However the paper would have been artfully wet, thus weighing almost as much as the fish it contained. The boy cleaning the fish would have an empty crate under the counter, called croce, the cross, and slip in a piece of fish from every customer, so he could have fish for his family Christmas dinner, a form of ‘charity’ that the clients were not aware of.

Nowadays customers will show up when the shop is crowded and ask for their fish to be not only gutted, but also filleted and portioned. This will be included in the price, with no additional fee, but the staff will appreciate a generous Christmas tip.

Side story courtesy of Leonardo, a Neapolitan Fishmonger


Sean Grant Altamura




Vesuvius Cloud: a Taste of Christmas

Panettone is a traditional Italian Christmas cake. Helga Liberto, the cake maker of Chef dei Grani from Battipaglia, has just presented one her masterful takes on this timeless classic. One of many interpretations, because the Panettone has been declined in countless variations, and the challenge is of course to try to innovate the recipe while being mindful of tradition. A daunting task if you ask me, because a successful recipe should be simple and captivating, adding a personal touch to a cake that has already been perfected over years of cooking history. And don’t forget that Italians are extremely touchy and distrustful of anyone who tries to mess with tradition.

Helga Liberto

However there is some space for innovation. One of the key ingredients of Panettone is candid fruit, something that people here have mixed feelings about. The other thing that has to be perfectly right is texture. The cake should be soft and light, resembling a very tall muffin, but more spongy. Forever a devoted Chef, Helga Liberto has patiently studied and created her own Lievito Madre, sourdough, to ensure her cakes may rise naturally and slowly, over many hours. Once baked the texture is so light that she has called it Nuvola, Cloud.


To make it unique Helga has resorted to one of the things that make Italy such a beautiful country: Territory. We are blessed with extreme bio-diversity, each local area has its own peculiar produce that can be found nowhere else. Thus the key ingredient of her Nuvola del Vesuvio is the famous Pellecchiella Apricot from – you guessed it – Mount Vesuvius. This very tasty apricot, sought after by jam makers like a precious jewel, is part of the Slow Food Presidia. It gives Helga’s creation that personal, delicate forget-me-not flavour. Orange zest, candid lemon and orange peel, honey, raisins and vanilla complete the picture giving each slice of the cake a balanced bouquet of delicate aromas.

Eating a slice for breakfast really does remind me of the delicate flight of a butterfly, framed by soft clouds with Vesuvius in the background. The apricot, honey and raisins blended smoothly leaving me with an overall sense of well-rounded sweetness, quite a pleasant surprise. Will you have time to savour it after Christmas dinner, with the kids dying to open their presents and aunts and uncles wanting another slice?

Side story

Getting the cake home before tasting it was a challenge in itself. The packaging is so elegant, that at first it reminded me of a posh handbag. I had to defend it from many beady eyes along the way. Especially those of my local baker, who has a keen eye for quality and a real passion for handcrafted Panettone. She was quick to read the ingredients and grasp the meaning of this dreamlike Vesuvius Cloud.

Sean Grant Altamura